Global Standard Stratotype section and Point (GSSP) and Working groups
|base Calabrian||Vrica, near Crotone, Italy||39º05’00” N, 17º07’00” E|
|base Gelasian||Mt S. Nicola, near Gela, Sicily, Italy||37º04’00” N, 14º15’00” E|
|base Piacenzian||Punta Piccola, Sicily, Italy||37º17’20’’ N, 13º29’36’’ E|
|base Zanclean||Eraclea Minoa, Sicily, Italy||37º23’30’’ N, 13º16’50’’ E|
|base Messinian||Oued Akrech, Morrocco||33º56’13’’ N, 06º48’45’’ E|
|base Tortonian||Monte dei Corvi, central Italy||43º58’67’’ N, 13º56’94’’ E|
|base Serravallian||Ras il Pellegrin, Malta||35º54’56’’ N, 14º20’03’’ E|
|base Neogene||Lemme-Carrosio, northern Italy||44º39’32’’ N, 08º50’11’’ E|
The Gelasian GSSP marks the base of the Upper Pliocene. It falls within MIS 103 and coincides closely with the Gauss - Matuyama boundary reversal. It preceeds the D. pentaradiatus LO and has been dated astronomically at 2.588 Ma.
The Gelasian Stage (Upper Pliocene): A new unit of the global standard chronostratigraphic scale, by D. Rio, R. sprovieri, D. Castradori and E. Di Stefano (1998) Episodes 21 (2), p 82-87 full text
The Piacenzian GSSP is defined at the base of the beige marl bed of small-scale carbonate cycle 77 in the Trubi Fm at Punta Piccola, close to the Gilbert/Gauss reversal boundary. The boundary has been astronomically dated at 3.600 Ma.
Punta Piccola section. Left arrow marks the basal part in which the Piacenzian GSSP is defined and right arrow marks the top of the sapropel that defines the Gelasian GSSP in section Mt San Nicola.
Hammering the “golden spike” during the fieldtrip of the Erice conference on Neogene Mediterranean Paleoceanography held in September 1997, featuring Mike Howell, Isabel Zamarreno (with camera), Maria Bianca Cita, Frits Hilgen and Franco Ricci Lucchi (from left to right on the left picture). Mike and Silvia Iaccarino together hold the preliminary boundary plate (right picture).
The Global Standard Stratotype section and Point (GSSP) of the Piacenzian Stage (Middle Pliocene), by D. Castradori, D. Rio, F.J. Hilgen and L.J. Lournes (1998), Episodes 21 (2), pp. 88-93 full text
The Zanclean GSSP and base of the Pliocene Series is defined at the base of small-scale carbonate cycle 1 of the Trubi marls at Eraclea Minoa. The GSSP predates the base of the Thvera subcron by ~100 kyr and corresponds closely with the C. acutus FO and the T. rugosus LO. The boundary marks the Pliocene flooding following the Messinian salinity crisis in the Mediterranean and is dated astronomically at 5.333 Ma.
Overview of the coastal cliffs at Eraclea Minoa facing W in the direction of Capo Bianco (left) and E towards the camping site (right). Arrows (in enlarged view) mark the Messinian-Zanclean boundary. Note the Messinian gypsym underlying the Trubi marls.
Eastward continuation of the Messinian-Zanclean boundary (arrow in enlarged view) close to the camping site (left). Eric de Kaenel shows the Zanclean GSSP to Conxita Taberner. Bill Ryan and Maria Bianca Cita in front.
Detail of the coastal cliffs at Eraclea Minoa showing the basal part of the Trubi Fm. Arrow (in enlarged view) marks top of cycle 6.
The base of the Zanclean Stage and of the Pliocene Series, by J.A. Van Couvering, D. Castradori, M.B. Cita, F.J. Hilgen and D. Rio (2000), Episodes 23 (3) pp. 179-187 full text
The Messinian GSSP is defined at the base of reddish layer of small-scale carbonate cycle OA-15. It falls within the reversed interval of subchron C3Br.1r and closely coincides with the FRO of the G. conomiozea group. The boundary has been astronomically dated at 7.251 Ma.
Messinian GSSP in section Oued Akrech, Atlantic side of Morocco. Preparation (top middle) and nailing down (bottom) of the “golden spike” with Silvia Iaccarino and Wout Krijgsman during one of the fieldtrips of the RCMNS congres held in Rabat, September 2000. Interview for Moroccan television in top right.
The Global Boundary Stratotype Section and Point (GSSP) of the Messinian Stage (uppermost Miocene), by F.J. Hilgen, S. Iaccarino, W. Krijgsman, G. Villa, C.G. Langereis and W.J. Zachariasse (2000), Episodes 23 (3) pp. 172-178. full text
The Tortonian GSSP is defined at the mid-point of the sapropel of cycle 76 in the Monte dei Corvi section (northern Italy). It is close to the LCOs of Discoaster kugleri and Globigerinoides subquadratus and associated with the short normal subchron C5r.2n. The GSSP level coincides closely with oxygen isotope event Mi-5.
The Global boundary Stratotype Section and Point (GSSP) of the Tortonian Stage (Upper Miocene) at Monte dei Corvi, by Hilgen F.J., Abdul Aziz H., Bice D., Iaccarino S., Krijgsman W., Kuiper K., Montanari S., Raffi I., Turco E. and Zachariasse W.J. (2005), Episodes. 28, pp. 6-17 full text
The Serravallian GSSP is defined at the formation boundary (i.e. at top of “transitional Bed”) between the Globigerina Limestone and Blue Clay Formation in the Ras il Pellegrin section (Malta). It coincides with the termination of the Mid-Miocene climate transition marked by the end of Mi-3b oxygen isotope shift. The Serravallian GSSP slightly precedes the S. heteromorphus L(C)O previously considered as guiding criterion for the Langhian-Serravallian boundary.
The Global boundary Stratotype section and Point (GSSP) of the Serravallian Stage (Middle Miocene), by Hilgen F.J., Abels H.A, Iaccarino S., Krijgsman W., Raffi I., Sprovieri R., Turco E., and Zachariasse J.W.,(2009), Episodes, 32, pp. 152-166 full text
The GSSP of the base of the Neogene is defined at 35 meter from the top of the Lemme-Carrosio section in the village of Carrosio, south of the town of Gavi and north of Voltaggio (Alessandria Province), northern Italy. It defines both the Paleogene-Neogene Period-System boundary, as well as the Oligocene-Miocene Epoch-Series boundary. It coincides with the base of geomagnetic subchron C6Cn.2n and falls near the base of calcareous nannoplancton Zone NN1.
The Lemme-Carrosio section, GSSP of the base of the Neogene
The Global Stratotype Section and Point (GSSP) for the base of the Neogene, by F.F. Steininger and others (1997), Episodes 20 (10), pp. 23-28